Health

Healthy Diet- In Different Stages Of The Life

People require a huge amount of nutrients to get a healthy lifestyle always. Although, for delivering these nutrients, right nutrition or even appropriate consumption of food in relation to the body’s dietary necessities is essential every time. A sufficient amount, well-proportioned nutrition added with day to day physical exercise is a foundation of proper health. Also, bad nutrition can provide poor immunity health impact, augmented vulnerability to an ailment, reduced physical and mental growth, and reduced efficiency. https://youth-era.com/2018/12/10/healthy-diet/

healthy diet

A good diet is eaten during the life-course assist in averting undernourishment in all its ways as well as a broad array of non-communicable ailments (NCDs) and disorders. But fast development/globalization, augmented intake of processed foods and transforming the way of life has directed to a move in nutritional patterns.

People are now eating extra foods which contain rich source in energy, fats, free sugars or salt/sodium, and most of them do not consume adequate fruits, vegetables and nutritional fibers such as whole grains. Hence, these all features are providing to an excessive consumption. A balanced and healthy diet will differ depending on the specific needs (e.g. age, gender, lifestyle, the degree of physical activity), cultural context, locally presented foods, and dietary customs but the basic values of what found a healthy diet continue the same.

A balanced diet is one which comprises a wide range of foods in such amounts and percentage that the necessity of all nutrients is sufficiently come across for sustaining health, energy and common health and makes a minor delivery for additional nutrients to survive a small period of strength.

The main food problems of concern are inadequate/ imbalanced consumption of foods/nutrients.  One of the most universal nutritional complications of public health significance in India is low birth weight, protein energy undernourishment in children, chronic energy insufficiency in adults, micronutrient undernourishment and diet associated non-communicable syndromes. Health and nutrition are the most imperative influential issues for human resource growth in the country.

Healthy nutritive practices begin first in life. Recent symptoms claim that malnutrition in utero might fix the step for diet associated chronic ailments in late life. Breastfeeding stimulates healthy development and enhances cognitive growth, and might have abiding health benefits, such as dropping the threat of becoming fat or overweight and emerging NCDs later in life.

As a healthy diet contains several types of foods, the importance has been moved from nutrient alignment to the food based methodology. Foods can be considered as per to the function as-

  • Energy-rich foods (Carbohydrates and fats)-whole grain cereals, ghee, nuts and oil seeds and millets, vegetable oils, and sugars.
  • Bodybuilding foods (Proteins)- Pulses, nuts, and oilseeds, milk, and milk products, meat, fish, poultry.
  • Protective foods (Vitamins and minerals) – Green leafy vegetables, other vegetables, fruits, eggs, milk and milk products and flesh foods.

Diet Throughout Diverse Stages of Life

Nutrition is essential for one and all. On the other hand, the necessity is dissimilar for every person that might it be a new-born, growing kid, pregnant/lactating women, and elderly persons. The diet differs from person to person that is depending upon numerous factors such as age, gender, physical activity, nutritional obligation throughout diverse physiological phases of the body and other numerous aspects.

Body weights and heights of children consider their condition of physical development and growth, while weights and heights of adults signify stages taken towards better well-being.


Diet For An Infant

If you have a baby or toddler at your home, then always ensure that they obtain sufficient nutrition in their developing years of age. Infants must be completely breastfed for the first six months of life. Breastfeeding must be begun within an hour after distribution and do not abandon first milk (colostrum), as it improves the immunity system of the infants and defends infants from different contagions.

Good breastfeeding makes sure protective nutrition to the baby thus decreasing the threat of infections and also aids in the complete growth of the baby. Breast-milk is the most natural and healthy food for the healthy development of infants.

Breastfed newborns do not require additional water. After six months, you can nourish your baby with balancing foods while continuing to breastfeed. Balancing food must be rich in nutrients. These balancing foods can be made at home from generally used food resources such as cereals (wheat, rice, jowar, bajra, etc.); pulses (grams/dals), nuts and oilseeds (groundnut, sesame, etc.), oils (groundnut oil, sesame oil etc.), sugar and jaggery. You can also feed your baby to a wide range of soft foods such as potatoes, porridge, cereals, or eggs.

According to WHO,

  • Babies must be breastfed fully throughout the first 6 months of life.
  • New-borns must be breastfed nonstop until 2 years of age and further than.
  • From 6 months of age, breast milk must be supplemented enough
  • Safe and nutrient solid balancing foods.

Babies cannot consume huge amounts of food at a single time hence they must be nourished small amounts at normal intermissions (3-4 times a day). Furthermore, the food must be of semi-solid stability so that the babies can gulp it easily.  A balanced food is a key to defend your child against nutritional lacks.

Protein Energy Undernourishment more generally affects children between the ages of 6 months and 5 years. Undernourishment is explained as “a condition of poor nutrition caused by an inadequate or unbalanced diet”.

Points to Remember:   

  • You should start breastfeeding within an hour after giving birth to a child and do not abandon colostrum.
  • Breast-feed fully continue (not even water) for six months.
  • You should carry on breastfeeding furthermore to nutrient-rich balancing foods first up to 2 years.
  • Breast-milk only is not adequate for babies after 6 months of age. Balancing foods should be served after 6 months of age, furthermore to breastfeeding.
  • Nourish low-cost home-based caloric and nutrient-rich balancing foods.
  • Perceive hygienic practices while preparing and nourishing the balancing food for newborns.
  • Go through nutrition brand on infant foods carefully as kids are most disposed to infections.
  • Prevent junk foods.

Diet For A Growing Child   

Children who consume a balanced food set the strong base for a healthy and active regime and this additionally reduces the risk of abiding health problems. The infant is the most serious time for development and for the growth of the mind and to combat infections. Thus, it is most vital that the children obtain the right amount of energy, proteins, vitamins, and minerals.

It is also most significant to follow that aseptic practices are followed while making and breastfeeding the balancing food to the kid; or else, it may cause to diarrhea. A perfect-formulated balanced diet is essential for kids and youngsters to get excellent development and enhance their immunity health.

Balanced Diet, playing outdoors, physical doings of kid are necessary for proper body structure and to lessen the risk of diet associated continuing disorders later in life and to stop any kind of vitamin insufficiency.  Youth has numerous other features connected to it: a fast surge in height and weight, hormonal fluctuations and mood swings.

Expansion of bone mass is going on throughout this term thus the presence of dairy products (milk, cheese, yogurt) and vegetables such as spinach, broccoli, and celery which are great sources of calcium is a must.

Children need proper resources of carbohydrates and fats for energy. Thus, it is quite necessary to provide them a daily consumption of energy-rich foods as whole grains (wheat, brown rice), nuts, vegetable oils, vegetables such as potatoes, sweet potatoes, fruits like banana.

In the case of kids, proteins are necessities for muscle gaining, overhaul and development, and building antibodies. Thus, provide them with a diet which includes meat, eggs, fish and dairy products.

A child necessities vitamin for the body to work correctly and to improve the immune health. A wide range of fruits and vegetables of several colors must be included in the child’s food. Vitamin A is necessary for eye-sight and an insufficiency of the same that can lead to night sightlessness (difficulty in seeing in the night). Dark green leafy vegetables, yellow, orange colored vegetables and fruits (such as carrots, papaya, mangoes) are rich sources of Vitamin A.

Vitamin D always aids in bone development and expansion and it is vital for the absorption of calcium. Children receive most of their Vitamin D from sunlight and a small quantity from some food items such as (fish oils, fatty fish, mushrooms, cheese, and egg yolks).

Adolescent girls go through more physical fluctuations and mental anxiety than boys because of the beginning of menarche (onset of menstruation). Thus, adolescent girls must take an intake of diet which contains vitamins and minerals to treat anemia.

Today, children quite tend towards eating junk food and at that time it most vital to encourage your kids in adolescent to consume more and more nutrition contained rich foods. Although children who have bad eating habits, which can cause lots of long-term health problems, such as obesity, heart ailment, type 2 diabetes, and osteoporosis.

Being parents keep making regular alterations in their menu to evade monotony of consuming the same food on a daily basis.  Teenage years are the most susceptible stage for evolving poor food habits, as well as poor habits, consist of smoking, chewing tobacco or drinking alcohol. These must be restricted. Furthermore to eating of a nourishing well-balanced diet, perfect lifestyle practices and participation in outdoor activities such as games/sports and it must be motivated or boosted amongst children as well as teenagers. Doing physical exercises every day helps to boost strength and endurance, and is essential for better wellbeing and happiness.

Points to Remember:

  • Always take extra attention in feeding babies and comprise soft prepared vegetables and periodic fruits.
  • Serve them a lot of milk and milk products to kids and teenagers as calcium is required for development and bone growth.
  • Boost your child for outdoor games and promote correct lifestyle practices such as washing your hands before eating meals, do regular brushing your teeth twice a day, hygiene practices are needed every day.
  • Avoid eating too much throughout a single meal. Consume at common intervals.
  • Exposure to sunshine aids preserves vitamin D which assists in calcium absorption.
  • Never go hungry the child. Feed energy-rich cereals-pulse diet with milk and crushed vegetables.
  • Provide lots of liquids throughout infection. A child needs to consume more throughout and after periods of infections to preserve correct nutritional eminence.
  •    Use an oral rehydration solution (ORS) with zinc capsule to restrict and regulate dehydration throughout diarrhea terms.
  • Drink at least 2-2.5 liters of water to hydrate the body. It is chosen to have water/buttermilk/lassi/fruit juices/coconut water over soft drinks and other packed drinks.

Diet For Pregnant and Lactating Mother

Maternity is a challenging stage in each women’s life might it be physiologically, psychologically as well as nutritionally. If you are expecting or someone in your family is pregnant a baby, ensure that they consume well. Extra food and additional consideration are essential all through pregnancy as well as lactation. Additional food is essential to come across the nutritional prerequisite of the infant in your womb.

Extra foods are necessary to boost the weight gain in pregnancy (usually 10-12 kgs) and birth weight of babies (about 2.5kgs-3kgs). The nutritive necessity of an expectant woman keeps fluctuating depending upon the several trimesters of pregnancy. In some situations, micronutrients (such as folic acid/ iron tablets) are particularly essential in additional quantities to decrease the risk of defects in infants and enhance the birth weight of the baby and to restrict anemia in pregnant moms.

Additional consumption of Calcium is necessary, throughout pregnancy and lactation stage, for the correct development of bones and teeth of the baby, for emission of breast-milk which is high in calcium and to treat osteoporosis in the pregnant and lactating mommies. Consequently, their diet must be added with calcium-rich foods such as milk, yogurt, cheese, green leafy vegetables, legumes, and seafood.  Vitamin A is necessary throughout lactation to boost child existence. In addition, nutrients such as Vitamin B12 and C are also required to be consumed by lactating mother.

Iron is necessary for hemoglobin fusion, and to give immunity to infections. Lack of iron leads to anemia, or iron deficiency is common mostly in women of generative age and children. Iron insufficiency throughout pregnancy enhances motherly death and low birth weight infants. Plant foods such as green leafy vegetables, legumes, and dry fruits hold the iron. iron can also found through sources such as meat, fish and poultry products. Eat vitamin C- rich fruits such as gooseberries (amla), guava, oranges and citrus rich fruits for easy absorption of iron from your diet.

Iodine absence throughout pregnancy effects in stillbirths, abortions, and cretinism thus use iodized salt in your food.

Thus, now you know why excellent nutrition is vital. Well, it’s significant for an expectant mom to sustain fetus as well as her own wellbeing, to deliver strength essential throughout labor; and for effective lactation. Just ensure that the diet consumed during pregnancy is light, healthful, easy to digest and rich in all indispensable nutrients.

Points to Remember:       

  • Consume more and more foods when you are pregnant both.
  • Consume more whole grains, sprouted grams, and fermented foods.
  •   Consume lots of fruits and green leafy vegetables.
  • Avoid alcohol and tobacco. It is injurious for the health of the mother as well as the child.
  • Consume medicines only when prescribed by a physician.
  • Eat sufficient iron, folate and calcium supplements on a regular basis as prescribed by the physician.
  • Green leafy vegetables, legumes, nuts, and liver are rich sources of folic acid.

Diet For An Adult Male & Female

If you are adult men and women, you should always take care of your intake. Adults usually complain of time crisis and with an inactive way of life, it becomes quite tough to follow a severe diet. Adults must take salt in control as more consumption of salt might lead to high blood pressure. One must not to eat conserved foods such as pickles/ papads and also canned foods as it adds to maximum consumption of salt. An adult woman must consume foods which are rich in calcium (Milk & dairy products), iron (green leafy vegetables-spinach, broccoli etc.) Maximum use of saturated fats and trans fats such as ghee, butter, cheese, vanaspati ghee and include more fibrous food in food in the form of whole grains, vegetables, and fruits.

According to WHO, a healthy diet for adults contains

  • Fruits, vegetables, legumes (e.g. lentils, beans), nuts and whole grains (e.g. unprocessed maize, millet, oats, wheat, brown rice).
  • Take just 400grams (5 portions) of fruits and vegetables every day. Potatoes, sweet potatoes, cassava, and other starchy roots are not classified as fruits or vegetables.
  • Unsaturated fats or Good Fats (e.g. found in fish, avocado, nuts, sunflower, canola, and olive oils) are preferable to saturated fats (e.g. found in fatty meat, butter, palm and coconut oil, cream, cheese, ghee, and lard). Industrial trans fats (found in processed food, fast food, snack food, fried food, frozen pizza, pies, cookies, and spreads) are not a part of a healthy diet.
  • Not more than 5 g of salt (equivalent to approximately 1 teaspoon) on a daily basis and use iodized salt.

Diet for Elderly People

People of 60 years and more than constituting the aging. The food for old people should consist of nutrient-rich foods to allow them to stay healthy and fit. Old people necessity extra vitamins and minerals get a healthy and active lifestyle.

The body structure transforms with the growing age and these entire transformations touch nutritive essentials of the elderly.  Senior citizen or old people need a lesser amount of calories as their thin muscle mass and physical activity reduces with elderly people. Old people need extra calcium, iron, zinc, vitamin A and antioxidants to eliminate age-linked deteriorating syndromes and for healthy aging.

It is most vital to preserve your health as the aged process begins and it enhances the life-expectancy. It is most vital for old people to work out as it aids to manage body weight and suppleness in the joints. The menace of deteriorating sicknesses also significantly reduces with day to a daily workout session.

Old people usually complain of not having craved for foods or from time to time trouble in munching. A very soft diet must be offered to old people, with the presence of fruits and vegetables in their regimen. Calcium-rich foods such as dairy items (low fat), milk (toned) and green leafy vegetables must be comprised in the regular food to improve bone health, thus as to stop osteoporosis and bone breaks.

Eat more pulses, toned milk, egg-white, and many more in good amounts as they are great sources of proteins. Old persons must remove on their saturated fats, sweets, oily food, and salt and sugar level. Although, ghee, oil, butter must not be added to your diet anymore. Likewise, don’t eat spicy food.

The diets for old people have to be well-cooked, soft and must be a smaller amount of salty and spicy. Make sure to consume small amounts of food at more common breaks and drink water at frequent recesses to prevent dehydration and constipation. Also, ask a doctor for a customized diet depending upon the medicinal condition in the case of people experiencing from prolonged ailments and bedridden patients.

Points to Remember:

  • Consume a wide range of nutrient-rich foods.
  • Match food consumption with a physical workout.
  • Treat fried, salty and spicy foods.
  • Drink plenty of water to restrict dehydration.
  • Do exercise on a regular basis or go for a walk.
  • Don’t do smoking, chewing of tobacco and tobacco products (Khaini, Zarda, Paan masala) and drinking of alcohol.
  • Visit for frequent checkups. Check to control for blood sugar, lipids, and blood pressure.
  • Prevent self-medication.
  • Take on stress management methods (Yoga and Meditation).

Functions of Different Types of Food Material on Health

  • Vegetables and fruits in the diet
  • Various types of Fats/oils
  • Salt Consumption
  • Whole grains
  • Water and drinks
  • Processed and ready to consume food
  • Quick foods, fast foods, street foods, unwholesome foods

(a) Vegetables and Fruits In Diet

Vegetables and fruits contain huge amounts of micronutrients (iron, calcium, vitamin C, folic acid, carotenoids, and phytochemicals) and macronutrients (complex carbohydrates/fiber).

Some vegetables and fruits offer you very low calories, though some others offer a good amount of calories as these all hold starch (such as potato, sweet potato, fruits as banana). Thus, vegetables and fruits can be consumed to enhance or reduce calories in the diet.

However, 400grams (5 portions), of fruits and vegetables on daily basis must be taken in the diet by a person.

  • Vegetables and fruits consumptions can be improved by-
  • Always include vegetables and fruits in the diet
  • Eat fresh, locally available, seasonal vegetables and fruits.
  • Consume a wide range of choices of fruits and vegetables (“rainbow of colored foods”) in a diet plan as diverse colored fruits and vegetables comprise various nutrients (phytochemicals).
  • Eat fresh fruits and raw vegetables as snacks.

(b) Different Kinds of Fats/Oils

Fats/oils are focused better source of energy. Dietary sources of fats are categorized as-

Animal fat –Various sources of animal fats are ghee, butter, milk, cheese, eggs and fat of meat and fish. They comprise cholesterol and a huge amount of saturated fatty acids and Trans fatty acids.

Vegetable fat– Seeds of some plants are rich sources of vegetable oils as groundnut, mustard, sesame, coconut, canola, olive, and soya bean.

Eatable plant foods consist of reduced amounts of fat and saturated fatty acids but they are a good source of mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs).

Visible and Invisible Fats

Visible fats are parted from their natural sources such as ghee/butter from milk, cooking oils from oil bearing kernels and nuts. It is quite easier to track their consumption.

Invisible fats are those, which are present in more or less each piece of foods such as cereals, pulses, nuts, milk, and eggs and are tough to guess.

It is highly recommended that between15-30% of overall calories in the diet must be served in the form of fats (visible + invisible). Diets of new-born babies and children must comprise sufficient quantities of flabs to meet their higher energy wants than grown-ups.

Unnecessary fats in the diet enhance the menace of fatness, heart infection, stroke and cancer. The threat of evolving these syndromes can be reduced by eliminating saturated fats to less than 10% of overall energy consumption, and Trans fats to lower than 1% of total energy consumption, and substituting both with unsaturated fats (MUFAs+ PUFAs).

Vanaspati ghee – When vegetable oils are hydrogenated, it transforms them into a semisolid or solid form which is named as vanaspati or vegetable ghee. Throughout the procedure of hydrogenation unsaturated fatty acids are transformed into saturated fatty acids and trans fatty acids.

As saturated fats and trans fats are risk features for the growth of non-communicable ailments (coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes, cancer, obesity), make use of vanaspati ghee must be inadequate in the adult inhabitants. Vanaspati ghee is typically consumed in bakery foods, sweets, and snacks foodstuffs.

How To Eleminate Fat Consumption?

  • Transforming how the food is prepared such as used vegetable oil (not animal oil); eliminate the fatty part of meat; and boil, steam or bake before fry;
  • Preventing processed foods comprising trans fats (eg. preparation prepared from  vanaspati ghee);
  • Controlling the intake of foods comprising large amounts of saturated fats (e.g., cheese, ice cream, fatty meat, palm and coconut oil, ghee, lard). Unsaturated fats or good fats (e.g. found in fish, avocado, nuts, sunflower, canola, and olive oils) are better to saturated fats (e.g. present in fatty meat, butter, palm and coconut oil, cream, cheese, ghee, and lard)

(c) Salt (Sodium and Potassium) Intake

Salt is an imperative element of the food. Many individuals don’t even know the exact amount of salt they eat. High salt intake and inadequate potassium intake (less than 3.5 g) lead to high blood pressure, which in order to enhance the menace of heart infection and stroke. World Health Organization (WHO) advises the use of less than 5g of salt every day.

How To Reduce Salt Intake?

  • Controlling the addition of salt during cooking.
  • Not having salt on the table.
  • Do not include extra salt to the by now cooked meal.
  • Restrictive the intake of salty snacks, processed foods (like papads, pickles, sauces, ketchup, salted biscuits, chips, cheese, and salted fish).
  • Enhancing potassium consumption by eating fresh fruits and vegetables as potassium reduces the adverse effects of sodium (salt).
  • Opting for products with less salt (sodium) ingredient.
  • Add only Iodized salt for intake and must be stored in a close-fitting vessel to prevent moisture.

(d) Sugars

Free sugars are whole sugars also included to foods or drinks throughout cooking or by the maker or user, along with sugars of course present in honey, syrups, fruit juices and fruit juice concentrates. Free sugars enhance the threat of dental caries (tooth decay) and can promote to fats and obesity. The consumption of free sugars must be less than 10% of overall energy intake.

Sugar consumption can be decreased by-

  • preventive the intake of foods and drinks comprising high amounts of sugars (e.g. sugar-sweetened drinks, sugary snacks, and chocolates); and
  • consuming fresh fruits and raw vegetables as snacks in spite of syrupy snacks.

(e) Whole Grains

A whole grain encompasses all appetizing parts of the grain, along with the bran, germ, and endosperm.  A food contains whole grains (such as whole wheat, brown rice, oats, unprocessed maize, millets) has been revealed to diminish the risk of heart syndrome, type 2 diabetes, obesity and some forms of cancer. Whole-grain diets also boost bowel health by supporting to maintain day to day bowel movement and lead to the development of healthy bacteria in the colon.

(f) Water and Beverages

Water amounts almost 70% of human body weight. Water is missing from the body through sweat, urine, and feces. Sufficient safe water must be drunk to come across regular liquid necessities.

Milk- Milk is a healthful food and drink for all age groups. Milk proteins are valuable additions to most vegetarian foods. Milk also holds calcium (poor source of iron) which aids in the forming up of robust bones. Thus milk is a rich source of proteins, fats, sugars, vitamins (excluding vitamin C), and minerals. Milk fats are saturated fats, therefore, those who have to consume a low-fat diet can eat skimmed/toned milk.

Toned Milk– It is a combination of natural milk and prepared of milk. It comprises one part of water, one part of natural milk and 1/8part of skim milk influence. As milk fat is of the saturated form, those who include being on a reduced fat diet they can take skimmed/toned milk.

Vegetable milk-Milk made of several vegetable foods (groundnut, soybean) is called vegetable milk. It might be consumed as an alternative to animal milk.

Soft drinks-These might be:

Natural soft drinks (natural fruit juices)-which provide moreover to energy, some essential vitamins (beta-carotene, vitamin C) and minerals (potassium, calcium). As natural fruit juices contain lots of potassium, they are best drinks for people who have been going through from hypertension.

Artificial or synthetic soft drinks -which are made of using additives, artificial colors and savors and are typically effervescent (comprise phosphoric acid which may affect lacquer of teeth).

Drinks such as buttermilk, lassi, fruit juices, and coconut water are best substitutes for beverages than artificial drinks.

Tea and Coffee – These are used for their aroma or their stimulating things. Tea and coffee intake is recommended in control. Tannin present in tea and coffee inhibits with iron absorption, therefore, they must be evaded one hour earlier and after lunchtimes. Teas mainly green and black are rich sources of flavonoids, (substances provided to have antioxidant assets). Tea might be ideal over coffee.

Sports Beverages– Daily sports drinks comprise energy-producing carbohydrates along with electrolytes, comprising sodium, potassium, and chloride for boosting energy and preserving fluid and electrolyte stability.

Energy Drinks– Energy drinks supply carbohydrates and caffeine (70 to 85 mg of caffeine per eight-ounce serving) and some drinks hold B complex vitamins, amino acids and herbal extracts such as gingko.

Tender Coconut Water-It is a healthful beverage can be used as oral rehydration medium, though inpatient having manic kalaemia such as renal catastrophe, severe adrenal inadequacy and in patients with low urine production, it must be evaded.

Alcohol– Drinking extra amounts of alcohol can shrink the heart muscle (cardiomyopathy) and also reduces the functions of the liver (cirrhosis), brain and related nerves. It will also increase serum triglycerides.

  • Avoid drinking alcohol and those who prefer to drink must limit its usage.

(g) Processed and Ready to Eat Foods

Processed foods- Many foods that are exposed to technical alterations either for safeguarding or for changing into ready-to-use/eat foods, abolishing arduous household processes, are named “processed foods”. Food processing methods comprise cold, canning, baking, drying and sterilizing products. Food processing is utilized to reserve extremely unpreserved products such as milk, meat, fish and fresh fruits and vegetables. Food processing also allows periodic obtainability of foods and conveyance over extended distances.

Throughout processing from time to time constituents such as salt, sugar, and fat are included to provide them more attractive, convert in food construction and to extend their shelf life. They might absence dietary fiber and micronutrients. Therefore, alertness about their intake must be there, when processed foods found several parts of the mealtime.

(h) Prompt Foods, Fast foods, Street Foods, Unhealthy Foods (Junk Foods)

Prompt foods- Foods that experience distinct processing for prepared to be given once softened or spread in a fluid with less preparing time such as noodles, corn flakes, soup powder.

Fast foods-Foods which are quickly cooked and fast served in a packed form for taking away. These contain high calories in foods such as (burgers, pizzas, fries, hamburgers, patties, nuggets, Indian foods like pakora, samosa, namkeen etc). Storage, handling, and contagion are the main concerns for such foods.

Street foods- Ready to eat foods and drinks made and, sold by dealers or sellers in streets or other public places, such as chaat, golgappas, samosa, tikki, noodles, chowmein, burgers, and many more. Food cleanness is a major concern in street foods (prevention of food contamination).

Unwholesome foods or Junk foods- these are all energy solid foods with containing high sugar/ fat/ content and low nutrient value in terms of protein, fiber, vitamin and mineral, including salt Chips, chocolate, ice-cream, soft drinks, burgers, pizzas etc.

Safe and Clean Food

Best practices for storage

With the help of appropriate storage tools, an individual can easily able to store various types of foods forever. Just you can learn how to store food is easy to know always and very affordable. Inappropriate storage of foodstuffs always enables germs to develop and flourish, causing food decay which leads to food waste and possible food poisoning.

Contemplate the following when storing food:

  • Agricultural supplies must be dried enough and safe from moisture in a protected storage structure (eg. tin with a tight lid) to stop damage from funguses.
  • Make sure all foods are enclosed and stored in proper food ampules.
  • Before any food source is to be put in storage, keep in mind to clean the vessels with foamy water, wash and dry carefully. Ensure the top (Cup) of the vessel is sealed and tumble proof.
  • Tag the vessel with the date of filling and expiry date.
  • Store in a shadowy storage part, where temperatures, moisture levels, and sunlight do not vary.
  • Keep storage areas neat and clean and do not messy and keep it pest-free.
  • Food storage and wrapping materials area must be positioned away from toilets, dirt, smoke, unpleasant odor and other contaminants.
  • Store food items or elements off the floor and away from the wall.
  • Always store fresh fruits and vegetables such as strawberries, lettuce, herbs, and mushrooms in a clean fridge at a temperature of 40° F or below.
  • Chill all food that is bought pre-cut.
  • If possible, also store raw and cooked/ready-to-eat (RTE) food items in distinct chillers or freezers.
  • Get personal hygiene while storing.
  • Some traditional domestic practices such as the application of eatable oils to grains, employing dried neem leaves in storing bins etc., are recognized to stop invasions.

Handling of Unpreserved Foods

To make sure the food you eat is fresh and safe to consume, below are some simple tips:

General tips       

  • Purchase only the good quality food if you plan to store it for any interval of time.
  • Fresh and preserved meats, fish and shellfish, dairy products and cooked foods must only ever be purchased from a chilled display.
  • Cross pollution can be evaded by keeping prepared and raw food distinctly.
  • Refrigerated cooked food must be heated before eating.
  • Frequent heating must be avoided.
  • Foods with a very unpleasant odor, such as seafood and some cheeses, must be covered.
  • The ‘best before’ date is your right guide to stowing of a specific unpreserved food.
  • Appropriate storage keeps your food always secure from the progress of food poisoning microorganisms,

Dairy Products

  • Fresh milk, cream, and some soft cheeses have only a small ridge life and drop quality fast if visible to hot temperatures throughout storage. These must be preserved in a refrigerator.

Fresh Fruit and Vegetables

  • Fruit and vegetables must be managed wisely to prevent staining and damaging the skin. Such a loss will cause worsening and decaying.
  • Many fresh fruits must be kept in the calmest area of the house when space is not obtainable.
  • Some fruits such as pineapple and bananas are freezing sensitive and must not be kept in the fridge.
  • To lessen shriveling or sagging due to water loss, keep leafy and root vegetables, such as silverbeet, broccoli, carrots, and parsnips, in punctured plastic bags, rather in the refrigerator.
  • By taking out leafy tops from carrots, parsnips, turnips, and beetroot, their storage life can be prolonged several weeks or through several months in the fridge.
  • Keep potatoes in a cool, dark, well-aired space to prevent greening and developing; take away from plastic bags and place in a strong paper bag, box or in a wire or plastic bin. Potatoes must not be stored in the refrigerator.
  • Keep nectarines, peaches, and plums in the fridge, until you want to mature them.
  • Tomatoes must be grown at room temperature, keep away from direct sunlight. When totally ready, particularly in the summertime, they might be kept in the fridge for many days.
  • To diminish mold development in onions, full pumpkin, marrows, and squashes, store at room temperature under dry settings, in a clear or free.

Egg

  • Eggs, opposing to what people trust, must be kept in the fridge. This will preserve egg quality and significantly increase storage life. They must first be kept in their boxes to eliminate moisture loss through the explosive.

Non-Vegetarians

Raw meat, poultry, and seafood

  • Meat stuff must be kept in the iciest area of your fridge. These foods must be kept under cooling if possible keep at a temperature of 10 C or less, which hinders an increase of microbes.
  • Before storage iced chicken for many days, it is a great idea to launch the plastic packaging, clean the chicken carefully, dry it with a paper towel then store as above.
  • Fresh whole fish must be cleaned and washed away if it is to be kept for over 24 hours.

Cooked meat, poultry, and seafood

  • Meat, poultry, and seafood should be chilled as shortly as possible after preparing.
  • To evade concentration, do not enclose hot meat fragments before chilling.
  • Keep cooked products above any raw meat, poultry or seafood to prevent cross-pollution.

What about personal hygiene?

  • Food supervisors must notice perfect personal cleanliness to preserve food security. They must be free from noticeable indications of disease, injuries, and wounds.
  • Take spoons and cups that must be fortified to evade pollution. Avoid prepared food is touched by the hands while cooking, providing and consuming.
  • Hands must be rinsed carefully before just starting the cooking of food and after every break.
  • Household pets such as cats and dogs always port unsafe pathogens. They must be removed from places where food is prepared, kept or served.

Elimination of the Pesticide Remains from the Food products by various methods (How to eradicate the effects of pesticides)

Various insect killer deposits can be eliminated by accepting four techniques of remains elimination. These techniques must be simply implemented at the household level to eliminate the insecticide remaining contamination. These procedures are washing, bleaching, unpeeling and cooking.

Washing

  • The primary stage in the elimination of insecticide scums from the foodstuff is washing. Rinsing with 2% of salt water will eradicate most of the contact insecticide remainders that usually look like on the surface of the vegetables and fruits. Almost 75-80% of insecticide diminishes by cold water washing.
  • The insect repellent remains that are on the surface of the grapes, apples, guava, plums, mangoes, peaches, pears etc, sweet vegetables such as tomatoes, brinjal, and okra need 2-3 washings.
  • The green leafy vegetables should be cleaned properly. The insecticide remains from green leafy vegetables are removed pleasingly by normal processing such as washing blanching and cooking.

Blanching

A very minor treatment in hot water or steam used to a lot of vegetables. Some insect killer remains can successfully be eliminated by blanching. But before blanching it is most vital to systematically pre-rinse the vegetable &fruits, and many more.

Peeling

Also, contact insecticides that look on the surface of the fruits and vegetables can be eliminated by peeling.

Cooking

  • Animal Products

Animal products are also the main source of pollution for insecticide remains in human diets as the animals feed on feedstuff, which is scattered with insecticides. Pressure cooking, frying, and baking will eradicate insecticide scums from the animal fat muscles.

  • Dairy products

Steaming of milk at high temperatures will abolish the stubborn insecticide remains.

  • Vegetable Oils

Refined oils will have smaller amounts of insecticide remains. Household heating of oils up to a specific blaze point will eliminate insecticide remains.

What are the common contaminants?

  • Foods might be contaminated with non-food material or poor quality product. Spoilt, decayed or worst quality food is prepared eye-catching and fresh by including unsafe colors or other elements.
  • Often contaminated food items are milk and milk items, cereals, pulses, and their products, edible oils and spices. The diverse sets of contaminants comprise non-allowable colors such as yellow; non-edible oils like castor oil; inexpensive agricultural produce such as several starches in milk powder; unnecessary matter like a husk, sand, and sawdust; and metal pollutants including aluminum or iron filings.
  • Intake of contaminated foods might lead to ailment eruptions of epidemic amounts. Purchasing from a dependable and good source, thorough checking of foods before buying and maintaining on top brands will all reduce the risk of food contamination.

Healthy Cooking Practices

Foods, in their natural condition, hold various nutrients in different quantities. Cooking enhances the digestibility of several foods. Raw food becomes softer on cooking and becomes simply chewable. Correct ways of cooking provide food healthy. Positive food ideas and cooking practices are base for better health by enhancing the look, savor, taste and surface, thus increasing adequacy.

Cooking method also aids to get rid of ailment causing organisms and terminate natural inhibitors of ingestion. Cooking food is a common thing in our homes, but the best is to follow the right way of healthy cooking practices. We can categorize the food cooking method in three steps such as:

  • Precooking foods
  • Rinsing and cutting of raw food
  • Cooking Ways

Precooking Preparation:

As per the food cooking, the cooking method of any food might comprise washing, crushing, cutting, fermentation, sprouting, and cooking. In Indian cuisine, fermentation (process utilized in preparing idli, dosa, dhokla) and sprouting (germination) are common procedures. These techniques enhance digestibility and boost nutrients such as B-complex vitamins and Vitamin C.

Washing and Cutting of Raw Food:

Raw food might comprise insecticide scums, vermin, and other unnecessary material. In order to wash the same, foods must be cleaned well before cooking and intake to eliminate these contaminants. Vegetables and fruits must be rinsed carefully with clean water before cutting. Cutting of vegetables into tiny bits leaks a larger surface area of the food to the environment, as a result in lack of vitamins due to corrosion.

Thus, vegetables must be cut into big parts. Cut vegetables that must not be saturated at all in water as water-soluble minerals and vitamins get clean away. On the other hand, some protections must be taken while cleaning and cutting to reduce the deficiency of nutrients. Also, don’t repeat washing of food grains such as rice and pulses as it may lead to the loss of several minerals and vitamins.

Cooking Techniques:

There are lots of ways of cooking such as boiling, steaming, pressure cooking, frying, roasting, and baking. Boiling is a very common way of cooking food we know it, but due to this method, some heat-labile and water-soluble vitamins comprising vitamin B-complex and C are absent. Cooking rice with enough water that may promote to the lack of nutrient value hence, it is better to make use of adequate amounts of water to be fully engrossed.

To prevent deficiency of vitamins you need to make use of baking soda for quickening cooking of pulses that must not be practiced. Frequent heating of oils that mostly Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (PUFA)-rich oils result in the creation of peroxides and free radicals, therefore, should be fully avoided by using just sufficient oil. Likewise, oils which have been frequently heated should not be combined with fresh oil but should be used for a process such as seasoning.

Some Common Indian Food Beliefs, Fads and Taboos

Food practices are molded early in childhood, delivered on from the elders in the family and preserved to middle age. Food principles either boost or deject the intake of the specific type of foods. There can be completely clean, inoffensive or injurious practices. Regrettably, many food manias and biases (taboos) are related to women and children, who are also the most susceptible to undernourishment. Overstated advantageous or injurious claims in terms of some foods, without technical basis institute food fads. Furthermore, the certainty of heat generating and cold persuading foods is extensively widespread. Here are some examples:

  • Jaggery, sugar, groundnuts, eggs and meat, fried foods, mango, bajra, jowar, maize are all considered very hot.
  • Buttermilk, curd, milk, green gram dhal, green leafy vegetables, ragi, barley flour, and apples are considered as cold encouraging foods.
  • Papaya fruit is intensely supposed to lead to abortion; however, there is no technical basis.
  • Vegetarianism is always practiced in India on religious estates. As vitamin B12 is present only in foods of animal origin, vegetarians must make sure a sufficient drinking of milk.
  • Throughout certain diseases such as measles and diarrhea, the dietary constraint is experienced.

Diet and Weight Management

A good consumption plan provides your body the proper nutrients it requires day to day. It will have sufficient calories for better health, but not so much that it makes you weighty.

A healthy eating plan is the best way with low in saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol, sodium (salt), and added sugar. Following a good eating plan will reduce your risk for weighty /fatness, heart sickness, and other associated disorders.

Healthy foods comprise:   

  • Fat-free and low-fat dairy products, such as low-fat yogurt, cheese, and milk.
  • Protein foods, including lean meat, fish, poultry without skin, beans, and peas.
  • Whole-grain foods hold whole-wheat bread, oatmeal, and brown rice. Other grain foods those all comprise pasta, cereal, bagels, bread, tortillas, couscous, and crackers.
  • Fresh fruits, canned, frozen, or dried.
  • Fresh vegetables, canned (without salt), cold or dried.

Canola and olive oils, and soft lards prepared from these oils, keep your heart strong. On the other hand, you must use them in small proportion because they’re rich sources of calories.

You also can add unsalted nuts, such as walnuts and almonds, in your diet providing you limit the amount you consume (nuts also are high in calories). Foods that are maximum in saturated and trans fats and cholesterol, increase your risk for a heart ailment, hence they must be limited.

Saturated fat is present mostly in fatty cuts of meat, including ground beef, sausage, and processed meats (for example, bologna, hot dogs, and deli meats), Poultry with the skin, high-fat dairy products can be said like whole-milk cheeses, whole milk, cream, butter, and ice cream, lard, coconut, and palm oils, which are present in most of processed foods.

Trans fat is present largely in foods with to some extent hydrogenated oils, such as most of solid butter and limitation, baked products and snack foods, foods fried in hydrogenated margarine.

Cholesterol largely is present in egg yolks, organ meats, like liver, shrimp, whole milk or whole-milk products, such as butter, cream, and cheese.

Eliminating foods and drinks with contained sugars, such as high fructose corn syrup, is essential. Added sugars will provide you additional calories without nutrients such as vitamins and minerals. Added sugar is present in various desserts, canned fruit crammed in syrup, fruit drinks, and non-diet drinks. Also, you should check the list of constituents on food packages for included sugars such as high-fructose corn syrup. Drinks that hold alcohol also will include calories, thus it’s a great idea to limit your alcohol consumption.

Food habits have transformed not only among the city elites, however, though in the rural inhabitants. With automation of the employment, most of the rural inhabitants who were physically extremely dynamic and active, have now become less arduous. The amount of food intake continued the equal or augmented.

More energy concentrated food intake habits with less physical activities are the major source of lifestyle illnesses such as diabetes, hypertension even amongst the rural populace.  This can be realized when any person who has consumed out recently. However, more than the past 40 years, serving sizes have fully-fledged considerably. Cutting back on serving size is the right way to consume smaller amount calories and balance your energy consumption.

Researchers found that we all tend to eat a few amounts of food. Thus, going with this, you can reduce obesity and weight if you consume foods that are poorer in calories and fat for a specified amount of food. For instance, substituting full-fat food items with a reduced-fat product that weighs the similar aids you curtail on calories. Next supportive practice is to consume foods that comprise plenty of water, such as vegetables, fruits, and soups.

Being physically dynamic and consuming smaller amount calories will aid you to reduce weight and keep weight off over time. Weight must be reduced slowly.

Tips to cut body weight:

  • Do not take medicines for losing weight, it  can be unsafe
  • Diets which you are consuming to lose weight must contain great sources in proteins and low in carbohydrates and fats
  • Enhance the intake of  fruits and vegetables
  • Consume at common intervals
  • Reduce the intake of sugar, salt(check how much salt you should take), fatty foods, refined foods, soft drinks, and fast food.
  • Choose low- fat milk/ toned milk.
  • Add physical activity in your regular schedule such as aerobics, walk, yoga etc.

Health Tips

  • Choose home-based foods against fast food.
  • Do not eat junk foods as they are a major cause of fatness.
  • Consume raw fruits and vegetables at whatever time possible. It is though better to eat fruits and raw vegetables in spite of chewing on snacks.
  • Limit eating of sugar and unwholesome processed foods.
  • Keep your salt consumption to less than 5 grams on a daily basis as it aids to avert hypertension, and decreases the risk of heart illness. Choose iodized salt.
  • Avoid trans fats that are present in processed food, fast food, snacks, fried food, freezing pizza and cookies.
  • Provide yourself small slices of high-calorie foods and huge slices of healthy foods such as vegetables, salads, and soups.
  • Best nutrition need not at all times be costly. You can obtain all the nutrients from cheapest foods items such as beans and lentils, eggs, jaggery, seasonal fresh fruits, and green leafy vegetables.
  • Don’t be particular over the foods you consume. It might enjoy your taste sprouts but it would lead to excessive nutrition.
  • Consume fresh foods with the smallest of processing.
  • Consume raw vegetables at any time possible. If you have to cook them, make use of as slight water as possible because several nutrients are damaged by heat or boiled water.
  • Consume fruits and vegetables with skins (apart from carrots, which can engross toxins from the soil). Rinse them carefully first.
  • Don’t cut, rinse or soak fruits and vegetables unless you are all set to consume them.
  • Do not substitute meals with snack food items.

References:

http://ninindia.org/DietaryguidelinesforIndians-Finaldraft.pdf
https://www.ava.gov.sg/docs/default-source/tools-and-resources/resources-for-businesses/(english)-good-storage-practices
http://www.fda.gov/Food/ResourcesForYou/Consumers/ucm114299.htm
http://ninindia.org/DietaryguidelinesforIndians-Finaldraft.pdf
http://www.csiro.au/en/Research/Health/Food-safety/Refrigerating-foods
http://ninindia.org/DietaryguidelinesforIndians-Finaldraft.pdf
http://icmr.nic.in/final/rda-2010.pdf
http://fda.up.nic.in/household_tests.htm
http://ninindia.org/DietaryguidelinesforIndians-Finaldraft.pdf

Dietary Guidelines for Indians- National Institute of Nutrition

http://vikaspedia.in/health/nutrition

Nutrient Requirements and Recommended Dietary Allowances for Indians

nrhm.gov.in

http://www.md-health.com/Balanced-Diet-Chart-For-Children.html
http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/obe/signshttp://www.healthdirect.gov.au/obesity-symptoms
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/tubmed/16866972
http://www.webmd.com/diet/obesity/weight-loss-surgery-making-the-choice

www.nature.com/ijo/journal/v32/n2/full/0803715a.html

http://www.homeoint.org/books/boericmm/c/calc.hmt
http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs394/en/
https://www.nhp.gov.in/healthlyliving/healthy-diet/
http://ninindia.org/DietaryguidelinesforIndians-Finaldraft.pdf
http://www.indianpediatrics.net/feb2011/97.pdf
http://www.nutritionsocietyindia.org/Download_files/Diet%20in%20Metabolic%20Syndrome-final%201.pdf
http://www.nhs.uk/Livewell/Goodfood/Pages/what-are-processed-foods.aspx
http://www.nhp.gov.in/healthlyliving/healthy-nutrition
https://www.beverageinstitute.org/article/types-of-beverages/
http://www.who.int/topics/nutrition/en/
http://www.who.int/nutrition/publications/nutrientrequirements/healthydiet_factsheet/en/

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